Bee viruses

I’ve been having a look at bee viruses today. I’ve done the Beebase elearning for viruses and done the quiz. I don’t think it’s massively useful though. has a really interesting table of viruses, their association (nosema, varroa, acarapsis, malopighamoeba), Transmission (Vertical, horizontal), affected lifestages, and season. The transmission: Horizontal: Oral-fecal, contact, air, varroa,… Continue reading Bee viruses


This is a fantastic video. ♀ Worker and queen have 16 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 32.With 16 from mother and 16 from father. This is a diploid condition. These 16 pairs separate and independely combine according to Mendel’s laws which give 2^16 combinations which is 65,536 combinations. ♂ has 16 chromosomes, 1 p[air… Continue reading Haploid