http://www.honey-collective.com/category/reference/texts/ Free books to download
http://entomology.ucdavis.edu/files/147621.pdf Worker bees who ingest spores before they are a week old do not digest food well, and are not capable of producing brood food. They skip the brood rearing part of their life and become foragers much sooner. Lifespan is reduced 78% according to Eric C. Mussen 2011. Young queens that ingest spores are superseded… Continue reading Effect of nosema on bees and the colony
http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol56-2003-175-181thompson.pdf You will often find Supercedure cells in colonies with high mite infestations. You will also see supercedure cells with other disease like EFB. Parasitic Mite Syndrome (PMS)
Only three countries: Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. There must be an original health certificate modeled on ‘model QUE’ (honey bees) as laid out in Commission regulation (EU) 206/2010 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32010R0206&from=en must be issued no more than 24 hours prior to dispatch by relevant authority in country of origin valid for 10 days health cert conditions… Continue reading What documentation is required for importing bees from outside the EU
http://www.oie.int/manual-of-diagnostic-tests-and-vaccines-for-terrestrial-animals/ 2.02.01_ACARAPISOSIS.pdf 2.02.02_AMERICAN_FOULBROOD.pdf 2.02.03_EUROPEAN_FOULB.pdf 2.02.04_NOSEMOSIS.pdf 2.02.04_NOSEMOSIS_FINAL.pdf 2.02.05_SMALL_HIVE_BEETLE.pdf 2.02.06_TROPILAELAPS.pdf 2.02.07_VARROOSIS.pdf 2.02.0_BEE_NOTE.pdf
There is no medical treatment for acarine. Some varroa treatments (eg: apiguard) have been found to be beneficial but it would be illegal to use them for treating acarine. Requeen. A good prolific young queen will have more brood. As mites can only infest so many bees the % gets smaller in a big colony.… Continue reading Management of acarine
. What’s stopping eradication of AFB? https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/221151/bee-health-consult-afbprofile-20130110.pdf • AFB was a disease spread by beekeepers with risks coming from equipment sold, imported stock, hospital sites and the inability of beekeepers to spot disease. It was possible that some beekeepers were self-treating for AFB which might help to explain why AFB cases cropped up at ‘random’… Continue reading What’s stopping eradication of AFB?