I’ve watched Gudran Keoniger’s video now (Linked at the bottom – about 43 minutes in) – she explains it as the drones only have 20-25 minutes of flying before they need to refuel – so 5 minutes to a DCA needs 5 minutes home if he’s unsuccessful, which leaves him 10-15 minutes to find a queen at the DCA and mate. If a DCA is further away then it’s 10 minutes there and 10 minutes back – which leaves him 0-5 minutes to get together with a queen.
The queen can mate 10 times in a minute so the time at the DCA isn’t at important – it’s a much shorter time she needs to spend there – which means she can spend the full 10 minutes flying there and 10 minutes back!
At 15 miles an hour – then in 1 minute a bee can fly 1/4 mile.
So the drone might fly 5 minutes x 1/4 mile which will be 1 1/4 miles
The queen might fly 10 minutes at 1/4 mile which is 2 1/2 miles
Larry Conner’s Bee Sex Essentials, he reports that virgin queens typically fly about a mile (1.6km) while drones from the same apiary usually congregate within a third of a mile (0.5km). (Seen in this thread https://beemaster.com/forum/index.php?topic=37004.0 )
Laidlaw says the queens and drones go to the same drone congregation areas.
This article by Jamie Ellis says: Although there
can be multiple DCAs in an area, drones typically prefer to go to
the DCA that is closest to their hive. In contrast, queens usually
prefer to visit DCAs further away from the hive, probably in an
effort to avoid inbreeding.
Ninety percent of the matings occurred within a distance of 7.5 km, and fifty percent
within 2.5 km. The maximal mating distance recorded was 15 km.
Peer, D. (1957). Further Studies on the Mating Range of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera L. The Canadian Entomologist, 89(3), 108-110. doi:10.4039/Ent89108-3
Some matings occurred across distances up to 10.1 miles
In this research most mating flight durations were 15-20 min.
Says drones fly to distant DCA