Varroa viruses

Wing viruses – cloudy and deformed

paralysis viruses – chronic, acute, slow,


CBPV1 – Can’t fly, crawl or cluster in hive, bloated abdomens, dislocated wings. Dysentery death.

CBPV1. Black robbers – bees ap[pear smaller because hairless and greasy looking. Lose ability to fly, tremble. Other bees agressive towards them – as if they are robbers –

kills bees quickly – in less than 5 days.
Related to Israeli acute paralysis virus.

SLOW paraylsis virus – takes 12 days to kill bees


NOSEMA viruses
black queen cell virus – kills queen cells
Filamentous virus – found in fat body, ovarian tissue and haemolymph – no visible signs
VIRUS Y – no visible signs


Virus X – Amoeba


Kashmir and sacbrood not associated with anything

Sacrbood – Morator aetatulus – affects larvae four days after cell sealed. Fails to pupate and can not shed it’s final skin. Affected larvae usually found in capped cells. Fluids accumulate under the tough skin and form a sac like appearance. Change from pearly white to pale yellow until dark brown.
Death occurs just before pupation with larvae stretched out on its back. Head region darker. Can look like gondola or chinese slipper. Can form scales but easly removed.
Infection occurs during cell cleaning and larval feeding.

Bee virus X – like bee virus Y but nothing to do with nosema.
Amoeba – Malpighamoeba mellificae
Shortens life iof bees but reduces spread of amoeba as reduces breeding time.

Kashmir – found in Kashmir and in India in Apis ceranae.  At least three strains in Apid mellifera – causes mortality in Australia and New Zealand.

No treatments for viruses – like humans!
Control varroa – keep it at low levels using a IPM

test for nosema in autumn. Careful feeding to avoid dysentery to avoid spreading nosema spores

Breed queens for resistance

Don’t import queens

Don’t move bees – stress – increases infection potential

Don’t overcrowd apiaries

Viruses can not survive in dead colons – scorch and acetic to clean equipment

Avoid squashing bees – the clean up will clear up any spores from their insides.



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