Why varroa spread so fast

Varroa mites are mobile and can readily move between bees and within the hive. However, to travel between colonies they depend upon adult bees for transport – through the natural processes of drifting, robbing, and swarming. In this way Varroa can spread slowly over long distances. However, the movement of infested colonies by beekeepers is… Continue reading Why varroa spread so fast

Virology and the honey bee

This is available as a free pdf! http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/virology-and-the-honey-bee-pbKINA21937/ The BRAVE project (Bee Research And Virology in Europe) was selected from the call for proposal FP6-2003-SSP3 where one of the objectives was the «Assessment of the level of risk and the likely consequences for bees and other closely related pollinators of the introduction of bee viruses… Continue reading Virology and the honey bee


AFB Caused by Panaibacillus larvae Which is a spore forming bacterium. It exists only in spore and vegetative states. Only the spore state is contagious to bees. AFB is a disease which affects the larva after it has been capped. A(fter)FB. When the infected larva dies the cell cappings change. American foul brood Bee larvae… Continue reading AFB